A MathML content to presentation transformation
for Arabic mathematical notation

CtoArP is an XSLT based transformation from MathML content markup to MathML presentation markup for Arabic mathematical notation. Actually, in MathML, even though the content markup is coded in a universal way, the presentation markup depends on the linguistic and cultural context.

The tools already available for the transformation from MathML content to MathML presentation in Latin notation are not appropriate for the same purpose in Arabic. Indeed, compared to the Latin mathematical notation, the Arabic one presents some particularities. For instance, Arabic mathematical expressions flow from right to left and use specific symbols with a dynamic cursivity.

The ctoarp.xsl stylesheet is used to convert MathML content markup to MathML presentation markup according the recommendations of the W3C Note on Arabic mathematical notation in MathML.

The ctoarp.xsl stylesheet is based on the ctop.xsl stylesheet that was implemented by David Carlisle. ctoarp.xsl imports the ctop.xsl stylesheet. Thanks to the conflict resolution rules, all matching template rules in the ctoarp.xsl have more priority than those defined in ctop.xsl. ctop.xsl template rules are considered as the default transformations. These rules are used when the transformation is the same for the Arabic and Latin notations and that there is no need to redefine new template.

In Arabic mathematical notation, some concepts can be presented by various notations. For example, the use of Arabic or Arabic-Indic digits, the use of dotted or dotless symbols, the use of mirrored or alphabet based symbols, etc. So there are several ways to translate a MathML content encoding. In a spirit of flexibility, the user can choose specific output notation. Indeed, the user can advise the translation process through the use of a graphical user interface Arselector that is used to generate an appropriate XSLT stylesheet.


To install the CtoArP transformation, download the compressed file: RAR and unzip it in a directory.

To use the transformation ctoarp.xsl:
- Run the ArSelector application using the command: ArSelector.exe
- Select the notations to use for your transformation,
then press the button "Create the xslt stylesheet" to create or update the ctoarp.xsl file.
- In the file containing content MathML markup, use ctoarp.xsl as a stylesheet:
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="mydirectory/ctoarp.xsl"?>
where mydirectory corresponds to the directory containing the ctoarp.xsl file.

To test the transformation, use examples in examples.xhtml file in the compressed file.
Case 1 Case 2
ArSelector ArSelector
ArSelector ArSelector

To view the result, use the free web browser Dadzilla. Dadzilla is, up till now, the only browser that supports MathML for Arabic mathematical presentation.

Contributors: Mustapha Eddahibi and Azzeddine Lazrek.


* David Carlisle, MathML on the Web
* W3C Math Working Group, Putting mathematics on the Web with MathML, 2003
* W3C Math Working Group, XSLT stylesheets for MathML, 2003
* David Carlisle, Patrick Ion, Robert Miner, Nico Poppelier, Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0 (Second Edition), 2003
* Mustapha Eddahibi, Étude et réalisation d'outils de codage et de composition du e-document mathématique arabe, 2007
* Mustpha Eddahibi and Azzeddine Lazrek, Dadzilla-a MathML browser for Arabic mathematical presentation, 2006
* Azzeddine Lazrek, Mustapha Eddahibi, Khalid Sami, Bruce R. Miller, Arabic mathematical notation, W3C Math Interest Group Note, 2006
* Mustapha Eddahibi, Azzeddine Lazrek and Khalid Sami, Arabic mathematical e-documents, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), Springer Verlag, Volume 3130, pp. 158-168, 2004


Copyright © 2006-2010 Azzeddine LAZREK All rights reserved. lazrek@ucam.ac.ma RydArab

Multilingual scientific e-document processing Project
Azzeddine LAZREK
Address: Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Science, Department of Computer Science
P.O. Box 2390, 40 001 Marrakech, Morocco
Phone: (212/0) 5 24 43 46 49 Fax: (212/0) 5 24 43 74 07
E-mail: lazrek@ucam.ac.ma
URL: http://www.ucam.ac.ma/fssm/rydarab

Last modification: 17.03.2008.